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  • Turkish History

    The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central and western Asia, northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.

    The term Turkic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people including existing societies such as the Anatolian Turks, Azerbaijanis, Chuvashes, Kazakhs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Turkmens, Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Bashkirs, Qashqai, Gagauz, Yakuts, Turkic Karaites, Krymchaks, Karakalpaks, Karachays, Balkars, Nogais and as well as past civilizations such as the Göktürks, Kumans, Kipchaks, Avars, Bulgars, Turgeshes, Khazars, Seljuk Turks, Ottoman Turks, Mamluks, Timurids and possibly Huns and the Xiongnu.

    Bold our origin:grn::grn::grn:




    ____________________________________________


    Name

    The first known mention of the term Turk (Old Turkic: Türük[12][13] or Kök Türük[12][13] or Türük,[14] Chinese: 突厥, Pinyin: Tūjué, Wade-Giles: T'u-chüeh, Middle Chinese (Guangyun): [dʰuət-ki̯wɐt]) applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." The Orhun inscriptions (735 CE) use the terms Turk and Turuk.
    Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi.
    There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, Turukha, Turukku and so on. But the information gap is so substantial that we cannot firmly connect these ancient people to the modern Turks.
    According to Turkologists Peter Golden and András Róna-Tas, the term Turk is ultimately rooted in the East Iranian Saka language:

    “ "[Turk] is of East Iranian, most probably Saka, origin, and is the name of a ruling tribe whose leading clan Ashina conquered the Turks, reorganized them, but itself became rapidly Turkified".

    However, it is generally accepted that the term "Türk" is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term "Türük" or "Törük", which means "created", "born", or "strong".

    The Chinese Book of Zhou (7th century) presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from "helmet", explaining that taken this name refers to the shape of the Altai Mountains.[citation needed] According to Persian tradition, as reported by 11th-century ethnographer Mahmud of Kashgar and various other traditional Islamic scholars and historians, the name "Turk" stems from Tur, one of the sons of Japheth (see Turan). During the Middle Ages, the various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were also subsumed under the classical name of the Scythians.[25] Between 400 CE and the 16th century the Byzantine sources use the name Σκΰθαι in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples.[25]
    In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term Türki refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (Türki Cumhuriyetler or Türk Cumhuriyetleri). However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for Türk or vice versa.[26]




    "Turk" as inscribed on Bilge Tonyukuk Monument in Old Turkic alphabet



    Orkhon inscriptions


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkhon_inscriptions



    ___________________________________________


    History



    The top of Belukha in the Altay Mountains in Mongolia is shown here. The mountain range is thought to be the birthplace of the Turkic people


    It is generally agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia with the majority of them living in China historically. Historically they were established after the 6th Century BC.[27] The earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation (contemporaneous with the Chinese Han Dynasty).[28] Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu, Dingling and Tiele people. According to the Book of Wei, the Tiele people were the remaining of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn Period.[29] Turkic tribes, such as Khazars and Pechenegs, probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Göktürk Empire or Mongolia in the 6th century. These were herdsmen and nobles who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese text that mentioned trade of Turk tribes with the Sogdians along the Silk Road.[30] The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name is a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. The Ashina clan migrated from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai) to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The tribe were famed metal smiths and was granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (tūjué). A century later, their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan and established the Gök Empire.[31]
    Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiform, and later the Uyghur alphabet. The oldest inscription was found near the Issyk river in Kyrgyzstan. Traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include wolves in Turkic mythology and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron, and fire. Turquoise blue, from the French word meaning "Turkish", is the color of the stone turquoise still used as jewelry and a protection against evil eye.
    It has often been suggested that the Xiongnu, mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-Turkic speakers.[32][33][34][35][36] Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least some Xiongnu tribes spoke a Turkic language.[37] Some scholars see a possible connection with the Iranic-speaking Sakas,[38] while others believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups. On the other hand, genetics research from 2003[39] confirms the studies indicating that the Turkic people originated from the same area and so are related with the Xiongnu.[40]So the scientific genetic results show clearly that the Turks originated nearby the Centre-west part of modern China.
    Xiongnu writing, older than Turkic is agreed to have the earliest known Turkic alphabet, the Orkhon script. This has been argued recently using the only extant possibly Xiongu writings, the rock art of the Yinshan and Helanshan.[41] It is dated from the 9th millennium BC to 19th century, and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images.[42] Excavations done during 1924–1925, in Noin-Ula kurgans located in Selenga River in the northern Mongolian hills north of Ulan Bator, produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to that of to the runic letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the Orkhon Valley.[43]
    The Hun hordes of Attila, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been Turkic and descendants of the Xiongnu.[28][44][45] Some scholars argue that the Huns were one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others argue that they were of Mongolic origin.[46] Linguistics studies by Otto Maenchen-Helfen's support a Turkic origin.[47][48] In all probability, they were closely related as the borders were not settled unlike modern times and migrations were common to distant places.
    In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu power in Inner Asia, leadership of the Turkic peoples was taken over by the Göktürks. Formerly in the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership united the nomadic Turkic tribes into the Göktürk Empire. This was the first known political entity to be called "Turk". The name derives from gok, "blue" or "celestial". Unlike its Xiongnu predecessor, the Göktürk Khanate had its temporary khans from the Ashina clan that were subordinate to a sovereign authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The Khanate retained elements of its original shamanistic religion, Tengriism, although it received missionaries of Buddhist monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write Old Turkic in a runic script, the Orkhon script. The Khanate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but the name "Turk" was later taken by many states and peoples.
    Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Turkestan and what is now Mongolia towards Eastern Europe, Iranian plateau and Anatolia and modern Turkey in many waves.[49] The date of the initial expansion remains unknown. After many battles, they established their own state and later created the Ottoman Empire.[50] The main migration occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East.[31] They also participated in the Crusades.[51]

    Later Turkic peoples include the Avars, Karluks (mainly 8th century), Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Oghuz (or Ğuz) Turks, and Turkmens. As these peoples were founding states in the area between Mongolia and Transoxiana, they came into contact with Muslims, and most gradually adopted Islam. Small groups of Turkic people practice other religions, including Christians, Jews (Khazars), Buddhists, and Zoroastrians.



    Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200.

    ____________________________________

    Islamic empires


    Main articles: Ghaznavid Empire, Timurids, Ilkhanate, Delhi Sultanate, Seljuks, Safavid Empire, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire, and Afsharid Empire

    Bold: our origin


    The Ottoman Empire c. 1683



    As the Seljuk Empire declined following the Mongol invasion, the Ottoman Empire emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa.[31]
    The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover short-lived, Delhi-based kingdoms of Turkic origin in medieval India. These Turkic dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); and the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414).
    In Eastern Europe, Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 922 and influenced the region as it controlled many trade routes. In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia. The Cuman-Kipchak Confederation and Islamic Volga Bulgaria were absorbed by the Golden Horde in the 13th century; in the 14th century, Islam became the official religion under Uzbeg Khan where the general population (Turks) as well as the aristocracy (Mongols) came to speak the Kipchak language and were collectively known as "Tatars" by Russians and Westerners.


    Early Turkic mythology and shamanism


    Main articles: Mythology of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples and Shamanism in Central Asia
    Pre-Islamic Turkic mythology was dominated by shamanism. The chief deity was Tengri, a sky god, worshipped by the upper classes of early Turkic society until Manichaeism was introduced as the official religion of the Uyghur Empire in 763. The Wolf symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena (Ashina Tuwu) is the wolf mother of Tumen Il-Qağan, the first Khan of the Göktürks. The Horse is also one of the main figures of Turkic mythology.

    our previous religious is shamanism.


    modern Turkish States:






    primary Turkish Empires


    Xiongnu (Hunnic) - Büyük Hun Devleti


    Büyük Hun and Ak Hunlar

    AK=White
    Hunlar=Huns




    European Hunnic-Avrupa Hun-

    Hun of Attila:grn:



    Timur İmparatorluğu-Timurid




    Timur is khan of Turkmen



    Ottoman Empire ve Timur Empire

    20 July 1402
    Çubuk field, near Ankara
    Decisive Timurid victory

    Timur had conquered Georgia and Azerbaijan in 1390, expanding his empire to the borders of the Ottoman Empire. The two powers soon came into direct conflict. Bayezid demanded tribute from one of the Anatolian Beyliks who had pledged loyalty to Timur and threatened to invade.[12] Timur interpreted this action as an insult to himself and in 1400 sacked the Ottoman city of Sebaste (modern Sivas).[12] In 1402, the Ottomans campaigned in Europe, trying to conquer Hungary. Timur, a wise and educated military leader, found it as a proper moment to attack and destroy the Ottoman empire. Beyazid was stung into furious action and when Timur invaded Anatolia from the east, hurried back from Europe in order to confront fast moving Timur somewhere in the west of Turkey. Timur, whose whole army was mounted, took u-turn moving fast through Anatolia, slaughtering Ottoman conscripts, taking away horses, destroying Ottoman cities and towns in his path.[13] The conflict, overall, was the culmination of years of insulting letters exchanged between Timur and Bayezid.[12]



    The exact size of the conflicting armies is not known. When Timur invaded Asia Minor, his army of horsemen with no infantry allowed him to move fast through the Ottoman Empire, destroying the Empire's defense piece by piece. Later, before the main battle and during the battle, a number of Bayezid's allies and vassals joined Timur. In Turkey Old and New: historical, geographical and statistical (1880), Sutherland Menzies states that both armies amounted to nearly one million men.[14] Peter Fredet claims that Timur and Bayezid's armies consisted of 800,000 and 400,000 men, respectively.[15]Robert Henlopen Labberton argues that Timur's army had 600,000 men, while Bayezid's army was only 120,000 strong.[16]





    __________________________________________________ _____


    Göktürk Kağanlığı-Göktürk Khanete



    The Göktürks or Kök Türks (Celestial/Blue Turks) were a nomadic confederation ofTurkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, succeeded the Rouran as the main power in the region and took hold of the lucrative Silk Road trade. Gök means Sky in modern Turkish.
    The Göktürks became the new leading element amongst the disparate steppe peoples in Central Asia, after they rebelled against the Rouran Khaganate. Under their leadership, the Turkic Khaganate rapidly expanded to rule huge territories in Central Asia. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership bound together the nomadicTurkic tribes into an empire, which eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts.[citation needed]






    __________________________________________________ ____

    Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu-Great Seljuks




    (and Great Seljuks then disintegrated) after Anatolian Seljuks



    Toghrol Tower, a 12th century monument south of Tehran in Irancommemorating TughrilBeg. (Tuğrul Bey)



    The Best Sultans

    Selçuk, Melikşah, Alparslan, Sultan Mesut (Özil):grn::grn: Çağrı and Tuğrul

    __________________________________________________ ________

    and

    Osmanlı İmparatorluğu-The Ottoman Empire


    The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye[4] Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes underOsman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299.[5] With the conquest ofConstantinople by Mehmed II in 1453, the Ottoman state became an empire. The conquest of Constantinople was a pivotal event in the evolution of Turkish statehood, since the victory of 1453 cemented its Eurasian nature, which remains one of the essential characteristics of Modern Turkey. The empire reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. The reign of the long-livedOttoman dynasty lasted for 623 years, from 27 July 1299[6][dn 2] to 1 November 1922, when the monarchy in Turkey was abolished.[7]






    Piri Reis map







    The Piri Reis map is a pre-modern world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. The approximately one-third of the map that survives shows the western coasts ofEurope and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia and possibly Japan. The historical importance of the map lies in its demonstration of the extent of exploration of the New World by approximately 1510, perhaps before others. It used 10 Arabian sources, 4 Indian maps sourced from Portuguese and one map of Columbus.

    __________________________________________________ ______

    the largest Turkish khans


    Bumin Kağan
    Kapgan Kağan
    İlteriş (Kutlug) Kağan
    Bilge Kağan

    Selçuk Bey
    Tuğrul Bey
    Çağrı Bey
    Alparslan
    Melikşah

    Sultan Sencer
    I Kılıç Arslan
    II Kılıç Arslan
    I.Mesut

    Osman Gazi
    Orhan Gazi
    1. Murat (Hüdavendigar)
    Yıldırım Bayezid Han
    1. Mehmet (Çelebi)
    2. Murad Han
    Fatih Sultan Mehmed
    2. Bayezid Han
    Yavuz Sultan Selim
    Kanuni Sultan Süleyman
    2. Selim Han
    3. Murad Han
    3. Mehmed Han
    1. Ahmed Han


    4. Mehmed Han
    1. Abdül Hamit Han

    Bahadır Şah
    1. Devlet Giray Han
    1. Gazi Giray Han
    1. Şah İsmail
    2. Bahadır Şah
    2. Devlet Giray Han
    2. Gazi Giray Han
    2. Şah İsmail
    2. Sökmen Bey
    4. Devlet Giray Han
    4. Kılıç Arslan
    Alp Tigin
    Babür Şah
    Balamber
    Belek Bey
    Çaka Bey
    Celaleddin Harezmşah
    Cihangir Şah
    Cihanşah
    Ebulgazi Bahadır Han
    Ekber Şah
    Ekber Şah
    ErtuğrulGazi
    Evrengzib
    Gazneli Mahmud
    Hümayun Şah
    Hüseyin Baykara
    İltutmuş
    İmadeddin Zengi
    İstemi Kağan
    Kalavun
    Kara Yusuf Bey
    Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey
    Kök Böri
    Mete Han
    Nadir Şah
    Raziye Begüm Sultan
    Şah Abbas Safevi
    Şah Cihan
    Şahruz Mirza
    Satuk Buğra Han
    Timur Han
    Toktamış Han
    Uluğ Bey
    Umur Bey
    Uzun Hasan
    Yakup Han

    and Mustafa Kemal:lov:


    these only main states, please comment:fier:
    Derničre modification par Batuhan, 28/03/2013, 12h37.

  • #2
    Do you have Medieval II Total War playing?


    I love history:grn:

    Commentaire


    • #3
      fall into an ambush (3 soldiers)
      (mined zone)



      Commentaire


      • #4
        1453-



        Fatih Sultan Mehmed’s Land Transport of The Ottoman Navy from Galata into Golden Horn by Fausto Zonaro (1854-1929).


        new Turkic film Fetih 1453 (Conquest 1453) English Fragment



        Language : Turkish, English, Arabic
        Genres : Action, Adventure, Drama, War
        Director : Faruk Aksoy
        Writers : Atilla Engin (screenplay), Irfan Saruhan (script writer)
        Country : Turkey

        Turkic peoples entered to Anatolia with Manzikert of battle (1071) the end zone, Vienna, Morocco, Iran, Crimea, Poland (seljuks and ottoman)

        good film I would recommend watch the movie


        turk or turuk name meaning "strongest" in old chinese language.

        our total states:



        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...Current_states

        Turkmenistan is our ancestor state, 1000 years since have migrated. continues even now.


        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkmenistan


        France does not know us. I think that's information enough

        Note: contrary to popular belief, The Turkic are not barbarians. -The aim of topic. you get to know us better.


        Ottoman Wars:

        Belligerents


        Allies forces:
        • Byzantine Empire
        • Papal States
        • Wallachia
        • Moldavia
        • Kingdom of Croatia
        • Serbian Despotate
        • Kingdom of Poland
        • League of Lezhë (Albanian Principalities)
        • Teutonic Knights
        • Kingdom of Hungary
        • Kingdom of France Knights Hospitaller
        • Spanish Empire
        • Maltese civilians
        • Republic of Genoa
        • Second Bulgarian Empire;
        • contingents from German princes of the Holy Roman Empire;[1]
        • units from Poland, Bohemia, Navarre and Spain.[1] Castile
        • Aragon
        • Portugal
        • Navarre
        • Kingdom of Scotland Scotland although preoccupied with problems at home always financially assisted its allies Spain and France


        __________________________________________________ _______________________

        Ottoman Forces:
        • Ottoman Empire




        ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Allies Forces:
        Commanders and leaders
        1. Eastern Roman Emperor
        2. Papal States
        3. Voivode of Wallachia
        4. Voivode of Moldavia
        5. Kingdom of Poland
        6. Kingdom of Croatia King of Croatia
        7. Serbian Despotate
        8. King of Hungary
        9. Kingdom of France
        10. King of France
        11. Knights Hospitaller[1]
        12. Republic of Venice[1]
        13. Republic of Genoa
        14. Second Bulgarian Empire;
        15. contingents from German princes of the Holy Roman Empire;[1]
        16. units from Poland, Bohemia, Navarre and Spain.[1] Castile
        17. Aragon
        18. Portugal
        19. Navarre
        20. James IV was promised a sum of money by the French to fulfill his dream which was liberating christianity from the Muslim Ottomans he couldn't set out on crusade since he died at the Flodden. In 1330 Sir James Douglas, Lord of Douglas died at the battle of Teba



        __________________________________________________ __
        1. Ottoman Sultan
        Derničre modification par Batuhan, 18/01/2013, 12h55.

        Commentaire


        • #5


          Cengiz Engizek was police officer

          The police car was ambushed

          1 police officier martyrize, I'm so sorry.
          Derničre modification par Batuhan, 26/01/2013, 23h43.

          Commentaire


          • #6
            __________________________________________________ __________________




            Sultan of Great Seljuk, Sultan Sancar's shrine (1085-1157) between 2002-2004 years Republic of Turkey by has been restored as a gift for Turkmenistan.

            Golden Horde


            This article is about the 13th-century Turco-Mongol khanate. For other uses, see Golden Horde (disambiguation).

            The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Зүчийн улс, Züchii-in Uls; Turkish: Altın Orda; Russian: Золотая Орда, tr. Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkic khanate that was established in the 13th century and formed the north-western sector of the Mongol Empire.[1] The khanate is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.




            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Horde

            _________________________________________

            Khwarazmian dynasty




            The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from Persian خوارزمشاهیان Khwārazmshāhiyān, "Kings of Khwarezmia") was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin.[3][4]
            The dynasty ruled Greater Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231 AD, first as vassals of the Seljuqs[5] and Kara-Khitan,[6] and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed the governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.[7]

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khwarazmian_dynasty


            _______________________________________________

            Oghuz Yabgu State




            Oguz Yabgu State (Oguz Il, meaning Oguz Land, Oguz Country, 750–1055), was a Turkic state, founded by Oguz Turks in 766, located geographically in an area between the east coasts of Hazar (Caspian) Sea and Aral Sea. The Oguz tribes occupied a vast territory in Kazakhstan along the Irgiz, Yaik, Emba, and Uil rivers, Aral Sea area, Syrdarya valley, the foothills of the Karatau Mountains in Tien-Shan, and Chui River valley. Most compactly Oguzes lived near the Aral Sea, in the northern Caspian Sea area, and along the lower course of the Syrdarya. In the 9th-10th centuries. in the basin of the middle and lower course of the Syrdarya and adjoining modern western Kazakhstan steppes developed the Oguz political association.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oghuz_Yabgu_State


            __________________________________________

            Kipchaks




            Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Kipczaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs, Kıpçaklar, Arab geograhers Kyfchaks) (Turkic: Kıpçak, Georgian: ყივჩაყი, ყიფჩაღი), Crimean Tatar: Qıpçaq, Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: Qipchoq, Қипчоқ, Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, Qīnchá), were a Turkic[1] tribal confederation. Originating in the Kimek Khanate, they conquered large parts of the Eurasian steppe during the Turkic expansion of the 11th to 12th centuries together with the Cumans, and were in turn conquered by the Mongol invasions of the early 13th century.[2][3]

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kipchaks

            _________________________________________________



            Uyghur Khaganate


            The Uyghur Khaganate, or, Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country (Mongolian: Уйгурын хаант улс, Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: traditional Chinese: 回鶻; simplified Chinese: 回鹘; pinyin: Huíhú or traditional Chinese: 回紇; simplified Chinese: 回纥; pinyin: Huíhé) was a Turkic empire[2] that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries. They were a tribal confederation under the Orkhon Uyghur (回鶻) nobility, referred to by the Chinese as the Jiu Xing ("Nine Clans"), a calque of the name Toquz Oghuz.

            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur_Khaganate


            Turkmenistan (turcoman) girl



            After 1071 the Turco people migrated to Anatolia regions from of present-day Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Uzbek, Turkmen and Turkish is the people not slant-eyed .
            Kyrgyz and Kazakhs and Tatars, slant-eyed. Tatars is Turks and Mongols mixture.


            In general, Similar to the Mongolian language and Turkish language. There are common words in both languages​​.
            the names of the people in both countries are the same.


            Ex:

            the names of the common man


            Mongolian | Turkic:

            Cengiz/Han | Cengiz/Han
            Timur | Timur
            Temur | Demir
            Altan | Altan
            Kaan | Kaan (or Kağan)
            Batu | Batu
            Berke | Berke
            Timuçin | Timuçin
            Teoman | Teoman
            Baykal | Baykal
            İlhan | İlhan
            Celayir | Celayir
            Cebe | Cebe
            Akcebe | Akcebe
            Ceren | Ceren
            Ceylan | Ceylan
            Giray | Giray
            Hülagu | Hülagu
            Kubilay | Kubilay
            Meral | Meral
            Olcay | Olcay
            Olcaytu | Olcaytu-ğ
            Haşi | Haşim
            Gurban | Kurban
            Kara | Kara

            this names it entered my head. There are lots more.

            ex: old turkic (göktürk) language medium: Ortu modern turkish: orta

            english: beard turkic: sakal Mongolian: sahal Hungarian: szákall













            Of the Turkic language most polite language is Turkish language such as american-british english.

            turkmen language (black) Gara. Turkish language: Kara
            .








            edit 2:







            TURKS

            There are perhaps 135 million Turkic people in the world today, and only about 40 percent of them living in Turkey. They rest are scattered across Central Asia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and northern and western China, making them one of the most widely scattered races in the world. All these people descended from a small tribe of horseman that originated in the Altai region

            The word "Turk," is derived from the Chinese character Tu-Kiu, which means "forceful" and "strong." The Chinese believed these Turks descended from wolves and the Great Wall of China may have been built to keep them out. According to legend a gray wolf led the first Turkic tribes from their homeland in Central Asia into Anatolia.






            east-west Göktürk




            and Göktürk money:fier:

            The first Turks were nomads who spoke an Ural-Altaic tongue similar to Mongolian, Finnish, Korean and Hungarian. Other Turkic people include the Uzbeks in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan, Turkmen in Turkmenistan, Kazakhs in Kazakhstan, Mongolians, Tartars in Russia, Uighars in western China, Azeris in Azerbaijan, Yakuts in Siberia. Some even regard Koreans and Hungarians as the relatives because their languages are similar.

            Turks have been known throughout history for their fierceness and fighting skills. Most of the warriors in the Mongol armies were Turks. Turks also dominated the Mamluk forces and beefed up the Persian Safavid and Indian Mogul armies. Turkic tribes were a threat to the Byzantines and Persians starting in the A.D. 6th century. They absorbed Islam during the Arab invasions which began after Mohammed's death in 632.


            Ancient Turks

            The Turks were such excellent horsemen. The ancient Chinese called them “horse barbarians.” Turkish women reputedly could conceive and gave birth while riding. Based on excavations and stele observations in Mongolia, archaeologists say that early Turks dressed themselves in silk, wool and animal skin garments; men wore daggers in their belts and earrings in both ears; and both men and women braided their hair.

            These ancient Turks raised millet, lived in felt yurts like Mongolian nomads today, and worshiped a fertility goddess, a god of the underworld and their Turkish ancestors. They made swords and spears from iron and were known for their metal working skill. Some of their leaders wore armor made from golden plates.

            Throughout Central Asia, Mongolia, the Altai area of Russia and western China they left behind large stone figures known as balbals or man stones. Dated to the A.D. 6th through 8th centuries, they are thought to be memorial erected to honor warrior who had fallen in battle. Almost all face east towards the rising sun. Most hold a sword and a bowl and wear a distinctive belt and earing. They are often found with lines of stone slab that perhaps represent the number of men killed by person the man stone honors.

            The ancient Turks were adept hunters, preying on roe deer and mountain goats, which they sometimes drove into pens. They were one of the first groups of people to use saddles with stirrups. This enabled them to swiftly attack their enemies because they could stand up and shoot their long bows while riding. Ancient Turks were so attached to their horses that rulers and warriors often had their fully harnessed mounts buried with them after they died.

            Altai Turks
            Turkic people trace their ancestry back to the A.D. 3rd century Altai Turks, who came from the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia.

            The Altai (also spelled Altay) Turks were united in A.D. 552 under leadership of a chieftain named Bumin, who, with the help of the Chinese, defeated the overlords that ruled the tribes in the Altai region and then subjugated the tribes on the Mongolian steppe. Later, with the help of the Sassanid Persians, Bumin conquered Central Asia, which gave the Altai Turks control over the Silk Road trade route between China and the West.

            The Altai controlled much of southern Siberia and Central Asia from the A.D. 6th century. They were one of the first Central Asian groups to realize the importance of trade and the wealth the trade brought them allowed them to establish permanent settlements.

            The ancient Turks of the Altai region developed a written languages which they left in on runic stones as far away as the Yenisei Valley in Siberia to the north and Orkhon Valley in Mongolia to the east. This writing system resembled the script of early Germanic tribes. Later the Uigar script was adopted by many Turkic-speaking peoples. The Uigar script is related to the alphabets of Western Asia and was also used by the Mongols during the era of Genghis Khan.

            Altai Region

            The Altai Region is a mountainous area in central Asia where Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan and China all come together. Situated between the Gobi Desert and the Siberian Plain, it is regarded as the homeland of the of the Mongolians, Turks, Koreans and Hungarians. Ural-Altaic languages are named after the region. Ancient petroglyphs found in the area are believed to have been made the ancestors of the Altay.

            The Altay region today is one of the wildest and most interesting parts of Mongolia and Russia. It is varied region with forest, steppes, wild river, lakes, deserts, snow capped mountain and abundant wildlife. On windward sides of the mountains are some of the wettest places in Mongolia, with glaciers, streams and numerous lakes. On the leeward side are some the driest areas.

            Natural vegetation in the region includes steppe grasses, shrubs and bushes and light forests of birch, fir, aspen, cherry, spruce, and pines, with many clearings in the forest. These forest merge with a modified taiga. Among the animals are hare, mountain sheep, several species of deer, bobac, East European woodchucks, lynx, polecat, snow leopard, wolves, bears, Argali sheep, Siberian ibex, mountains goats and deer. Bird species include pheasant, ptarmigan, goose, partridge, Altai snowcock, owls, snipe and jay, In the streams and rivers are trout, grayling and the herring-like sig.

            The Altai Mountains stretch for 1,200 miles across southwestern Mongolia from Siberia to the Gobi Desert. The mountains are of moderate height. There are several peaks over 4,500 meters. Those that are higher than 3,000 meters are snowcapped throughout the year. The region is rich in lakes and streams. The Ob, Irtysh and Yenisei all have their sources in the Altai. The Altai people live mainly in the broad plateaus, steppes and valleys of the ranges, where water is plentiful. The Altai complex of mountain ranges embraces the water divide mountains for all of Asia: the South Altai, the Inner Altai and the east Altai. The Mongolian Altai is connected to this mountain complex, rising to the southeast of the Siberian Altai region.

            The climate is continental with extremes in temperatures between the summer and the winter. The mountains help to mitigate the extremes to some extent by causing a winter temperature inversion that produces an island of winter temperatures that are warmer than those in the Siberian taiga to the north and the Central Asian and Mongolian steppes to south and east. Even so temperatures drop as low as -48°C in the winter. The mountains are a gathering point for precipitation in a region that otherwise is dry. The most rain falls in July and August, with another smaller period of rain in late autumn. The western Altai receives around 50 centimeters of precipitation a year. The eastern Altai receives less: around 40 centimeters a year

            The archeological and historical evidence that the Altai Mountains is the original homeland of all Altaic-speaking people is a bit flimsy. The argument is based on simple geography: the fact that it lies at the center of a scattering of Turkic-speaking peoples.

            In the first millennium B.C., the Altai were inhabited by pastoral nomads who domesticated sheep, horses and other animals. See Pazyryk, History

            Historical and archeological evidence indicate that the people that lived here from 5th to the 1st centuries B.C. were a herding people under the rule of chief or king. These people had contact with peoples in Central Asia. The language of these people is unknown but it seems unlikely that there were Turkic speakers. Turkic speakers arrived in the Altai region at a later time, some time in the A.D. first millennium.

            Early Turkish States

            The Turks began their rise to power when one of their leaders was denied the hand of daughter from another tribe, the Juan Juans, who enlisted the Turk's help. The leader married a daughter of Chinese group who united with Turks to break the Juan Juans. [Source: "History of Warfare" by John Keegan, Vintage Books]

            The first great state which carried the name Turk was the Kok-Turk State which extended from Manchuria to the Black Sea and Iran between the A.D. 6th and 8th centuries. This empire had trade links with China, Iran and the Byzantines and left behind inscriptions and an unusual alphabet on stones in Mongolia.


            Turkish Tribes in the Middle Ages

            Dominant Turkic tribes in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries included the Uighars, Khazars, Kipchacks and Seljucks. The Mongols were slightly related to Turkic groups. One of the main differences between the Mongols and the Turks is that the Mongols tended to return home after their conquests while the Turks tended to stay in their conquered lands. The Russians lumped the Mongols, Tatar and Turks together and called them "Tatars."

            All the Turkic tribes converted to Islam except for the reindeer herding Yakuts in Siberia and the Chuvash in the Volga region of Russia, but the wolf mythology stayed with them. Ninth century stelae in Mongolia show young Turkic children suckling from the teats of a mother wolf like Romulus and Remus, and the Osmanli Turks, the forbears of the Ottomans, marched with banners depicting a wolf's head when they conquered their way from Central Asia to the outskirts of Constantinople.

            In the 11th Turkish tribes began invading western Asia from their homelands in Central Asia. The strongest of these tribes was the Seljuks. In the wake of the Samanids (819-1005)—Persians who set up a local dynasty in Central Asia within the Abbasid Empire— arose to two Turkish dynasties: the Ghaznavids, based in Khorasan in present-day Turkmenistan, and the Karakhanids from present-day Kazakhstan. Karakhanids are credited with converting Central Asia to Islam. The established a large empire that stretched from Kazakhstan to western China and embraced three important cities: Balasagun (present-day Buruna in Kyrzgzstan), Talas (present-day Tara in Kazakhstan) and Kashgar. Bukhara continued as a center of learning. The Karakhanids and Ghaznavids fought one another off and on until they were both out maneuvered diplomatically and militarily by the Seljuk Turks, who created a huge empire that stretched from western China to the Mediterranean.

            Ancient Turkmen

            Historians believe that the original Turkmen—of present-day Turkmenistan—were nomadic horse-breeding clans known as the Oghuz from the Altai region of what is now Mongolia and Siberia. They began migrating from their homeland around the 6th century, then were driven out by the Seljuk Turks, and formed communities in the oases around the Kara-kum deserts of modern Turkmenistan and also parts of Persia, Anatolia and Syria.

            The Orguz first appeared in the area of Turkmenistan is the A.D. 8th to 10th centuries. According to legend Turkmen are descended from the fabled Orghuz Khan or the warriors who formed clans around his 24 grandsons.

            The name Turkmen first appeared in 11th century sources. It referred to groups among the Oghuz that converted to Islam. During the 13th century Mongol invasions they fled to remote areas near the shores of the Caspian Sea. There they remained relatively isolated. Unlike many other Central Asian peoples, they were not influenced much by Mongol culture or political traditions.

            In the 11th and 12th century Orguz-Turkmen established the Khorosan and Khorsem khanates, the core of the future Turkmen nation. In the 15th century what is now Turkmenistan was divided between the Khivan and Bukharan khanates and Persia..

            Seljuk Turks

            The Seljuk Turks were nomadic horsemen who converted to Islam and recognized the Abbasid caliph. They conquered much of Central Asia and the Middle East. They were named after one of one their early leaders and converted as a group to Islam through the efforts of Arab missionaries.

            The Seljuk Turks created a huge empire that stretched from western China to the Mediterranean and included modern-day Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Yemen, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and parts of Uzbekistan, Saudi Arabia and Palestine. At their height, the Seljuk sultan had himself invested as emperor by the caliph of Baghdad. Their success was largely accidental.

            The Seljuks emerged at a time when the Bagdad caliphate was weak and the Muslim world was in chaos and was made a number of shifting independent states that fought among themselves with none eing able to establish dominance until the Seljuks came along. The Seljuks ruled for about a century before they were weakened by fights for succession that thrust Central Asia into another period marked by chaos and conflicts between feuding states.

            Seljuk Turks in Central Asia

            The Seljuk Turkish from Central Asia converted to Islam in the 990s. In the early 11th century they entered the area around Uzbekistan with a cavalry of nomadic troops and began claiming more and more territory.

            The Seljuk Turks gained power in Central Asia by out maneuvering, both diplomatically and militarily, the feuding Karakhanids and Ghaznavids. In the 11th century, Sultan Sanjar made Merv in present-day Turkmenistan the capital of the Seljuk Empire and used it as a base for its conquests of Afghanistan and Persia. By 1040 the Seljuks had taken western Iran from the Ghazanids.

            Under the Seljuk Turks in 11th and 12th centuries Merv was the greatest city in the Islamic world and was known as “Merv, Queen of the World.” It also believed to have been the inspiration for a number of tales in Thousand and One Nights. Under the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan, the Seljuk empire stretched from Afghanistan to Egypt and Merv became a city full of palaces, libraries, observatories, and canals that nourished parks and lush gardens.

            The Seljuk army stayed close to its nomadic roots. They were a Mongol-like cavalry horde that “were a law unto themselves” and traveled with their animals wherever they wished


            Seljuk Turks Conquer Baghdad

            The Seljuks defeated the Persians and began moving westward and took over Baghdad, then the capital of the Islamic caliphate, in 1055. They came to a special relationship with the Muslim caliph, who at the time was very weak and needed military support. In return for propping up the caliph, the Seljuks—still close to the ir nomadic horseman roots—were able to conquer in the name of Islam and keep the spoils of their conquests.

            The Seljuks usurped power from the Abbasids and then embraced their culture, claiming Sunni Orthodoxy, declared themselves sultans "holder of power." The Seljuks proceeded to unify the Muslim world again by conquering Iraq and eastern Asia Minor. The y helped make the Muslim world stringer by allowing the regions to serve a Muslim hierarchy but maintain a degree of autonomy that stretched beyond Seljuk territory. Although places like Cairo, Samarkand and Cordova were not under Seljuk rule they were able to prosper due to stability in the Muslim world and independence at home.

            The Seljuks reached their peak under the brilliant Persian vizier Nizamulmulk (ruled 1063 to 1092), who wanted to use the Turks to unify Muslims and rebuild the old Abbasid bureaucracy. He augmented the Seljuk cavalry with a new slave corp that was able to expand the Seljuk empire as far Yemen in the south, Afghanistan in the west and Syria in the west. Under Nizamulmulk, the Seljuk Turks captured Jerusalem and the Holy land in 1071 and held it during the time of the First Crusade.


            Seljuk Turks in Anatolia

            The Seljuks established a small sultanate on Anatolia call Rum (Rome). From here they attacked the Byzantines in Asia Minor, and Arabs in Syria and Palestine. In 1070 the Seljuks took Syria from the Fatimids and entered Byzantine territory. In 1071, they defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert near Lake Van, and took the Byzantine emperor Romanus IV Diogense prisoner. This effectively ended Byzantine rule in Anatolia.

            At first only a few Seljuks entered Asia Minor, but when they defeated the Byzantines at Malazgirt the floodgates opened and waves of Turkish immigrants poured in. Anatolia was seen as the new frontier . Seljuk military hordes roamed freely through Anatolia with their animals and set up small states.

            Seljuks were led by fierce and competent rulers that expanded their empire across Anatolia, establishing a provincial capital in Nicaea (Iznik), not far from the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, and engaged in commercial relations with Italian republics such as Venice.


            Seljuk Turk Government and Culture

            The Seljuk empire was not a centralized state but rather a group of semi-independent kingdoms ruled by members of the same extended family. The Seljuk empire had few formal political institutions. Seljuk leaders maintained order on the local level through amirs, nomadic military regimes that were mostly independent and took in revenues mostly for themselves, and ulumas, Muslim clerics who used their influence to gain political power in a way not unlike modern Ayatollahs.

            The ulumas established the madrassahs (Islamic theological schools). They helped standardize Islamic learning and in doing so they raised the status of the clergy and created a bureaucracy that gave them power. The Seljuks built madrassahs throughout the Muslim world and acted as links between local rulers and the Seljuk-Persian rulers in Baghdad and acted as local judges for the amirs.

            The power of the amirs was short-lived but the power of the ulumas was more long-lasting. Under the uluma system, local communities felt less like subjects of a remote caliphate and more like a part of greater Muslim community. This in turn made Islam stronger and unified the Muslim world on deeper more individual level.

            Turks who moved into Anatolia and the Middle East came under the strong influence of Islamic culture. They were Sunnis with a strong tendency towards Sufism.

            The Seljuks were ambitious builders who constructed great madrassahs, mosques, hospitals, inns, bridges and roads from stone. Features of Seljuk architecture include gateways with monumental “stalactites” known as muqarnas. ogival archways and ceramic tiling. Seljuks developed the classic mosque plan with four iwans, barrel-vaulted chambers, arranged around a court. They used brick with great sophistication to create arches and domes as well as complex surface patterns. Alladddin Mosque and Ulu Mosque in Konya are fine examples of Seljuk architecture.


            Seljuk Turks and the Assassins

            The greatest threat to Seljuk rule came from radical Sufis and Shiites, who had became disillusioned by the corruption of the Fatimid empire and remained disillusioned under the Seljuk. The most powerful and radical of these Sufi sects were the Ismaili, also known as the Assassins, a medieval terrorist groups the seized Seljuk strongholds, and murdering leading amirs. By 1092, the were leading a full scale revolt they believed was championing the rights or ordinary people.

            The terrorist campaign by the Assassins was met with strong counter attacks. The amirs launched a military and propaganda campaign against them and rounded u suspected Ismailis and had them executed. This campaign was effective. In end it made ordinary people suspicious of not only the Ismaelis but also Shiite Muslims and Sufis.

            The first victim of the infamous assassins, an 11th century Muslim sect living in a cliffside fortress in Persia, was Nizam al-Mulk, Grand Vizier of the Seljuk sultan Malikshah. The executioner, disguised as a holy man, stabbed the vizier with a dagger while he was being carried on his litter to his harem. [Source: Pico Iyer, Smithsonian magazine, October 1986 (√)]

            Later, the Seljuk sultan Sanjar was warned it was in his best interest to sign a peace treaty with the assassins when a dagger was plunged next to his bed while he slept. A message that followed read: "Did I not wish the sultan well that dagger which was struck hard into the hard ground would have been placed in his soft breast." This point was driven home when Sanjar was given a demonstration of assassin loyalty by their leader Hasan-i Sabbah. When Hasan gave the word one young follower slit his own throat and another threw himself of the fortress walls to his death. Hasan said that he had 60,000 other men who prepared to the same: Sanjar showed good judgment, many would agree, by signing the peace treaty.√

            Seljuk Turks and the Crusaders

            The Seljuk dynasty began declining at the end of the 11th century. The uluma system remained in place but without strong central authority and local leaders constantly fought among themselves. This became most apparent during the Crusaders, when European invaders were able to move relatively easily through Seljuk territory because local amirs were preoccupied with fighting each other.

            In 1091, the Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II for help battling the Seljuks. In 1095, the Crusaders came to the aid of the Byzantines and helped drive the Seljuks from Iznik and western Anatolia. The Byzantines had struck a deal, allowing the Crusaders to pass through Constantinople on their way to the Holy Land in return for handing over any territory they took from the Seljuks.

            With the help of the Crusaders of the First Crusade, Byzantine was able to win back much of the territory lost to the Seljuks. In 1097, the Seljuks were kicked out of Nicaea and driven eastward into Anatolia. The Seljuks then established a provincial capital in Konya. Later the Seljuks were able to win back much of the land taken by the Crusaders and managed to hold on to Anatolia through all Seventh Crusade. Konya reached its peak under the leadership of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat in the 13th century but the Seljuk empire as a whole was never as strong as it was.

            End of the Seljuk Turks

            The Seljuk empire was divided into states in the 12th century: one was ruled by Seljuks and the other by Mamluks (a military caste of former Turk, Kurd and Circassian slaves). The Mamluks occupied Egypt and the Holy Land until the Ottomans took over.↕

            The Seljuk dynasty ended with the invasion of the Mongols in 1243. The Mongols destroyed Baghdad and a number of other great Muslim cities. The Seljuks in Konya surrendered and submitted to the Mongols and after that lost their hold in Anatolia and disappeared from history.

            http://factsanddetails.com/Asian.php...5&subcatid=424
            Derničre modification par Batuhan, 15/02/2013, 01h12.

            Commentaire


            • #7
              I will do my signature soon

              only one word, a very interesting language:grn:

              Commentaire


              • #8
                hi:grn:

                in english: "we too are grandchild of Attila."

                There are four tribes in Hungary. three units Turco

                Onogurs, Ugors, Huns and Khazars Kavars

                Khazars in turkish Hazar: Hazar-----> Caspian
                .




                White Huns, Great Huns, Europe Huns.



                Turco--------Hungarian
                bıçak---------bicska
                boza----------boza
                kopuz--------koboz
                fincan--------findzsa
                duhan-------dohány
                ibrik----------ibrik
                pabuç-------papucs
                çizme-------csizma
                arslan------oroszlán
                kapı---------kapu
                deniz-------tenger (in mongolia= Tenis)
                öküz-------ökör
                bilig--------bélyeg
                arpa-------árpa


                Thank you for this gesture, Hungary:fier:

                Commentaire


                • #9
                  i will show distribution of Turco in the world today:fier:




                  Turkic tribes (Oghuz, Uigur, Kypcak):crazy:







                  Gagauziya they believe in Christianity.

                  Gagavuzya is an autonomous region of Moldova. Its name comes from the word "Gagauz", most likely derived from the name Gok-oguz which, in turn, refers to descendants of the Turkic Oghuz tribes.




                  as a result, there are Christian Turks, The main religion of shamanism Turks. continues the traditions of shamanism today.

                  e.g

                  pour in the lead.
                  wood to hit 3 times when hear a bad word.:grn::grn::grn:
                  pray looking at the moon.
                  concatenate/tie shoddy to tree .
                  Turkic evil eye beads.
                  canine, amulet
                  volcano, river, leaf, sun, sea, sky, lightning, earth, etc. to put names inspired by nature.
                  avoid pressing sill
                  household objects
                  and hundreds more




                  lace:grn:
                  .
                  .
                  .
                  v




                  e.g











                  elementary school

























                  Derničre modification par Batuhan, 03/05/2013, 16h36.

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